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Sunday, September 25, 2016

What Does A Discriminative Stimulus Mean? In reference to a Drug or Action Discriminative Stimulus Means... (Definition of Discriminative Stimulus)

Q: I saw in an article that a drug ''produced a discriminative stimulus'' and in another ''discriminative stimulus effect resulting from X drug'', what does that mean, exactly?

A: A discriminative stimulus is an element; be that a drug, or presence of a particular food or being that produces reinforcement, stimulation or positive reward. In studies, rats are trained to discriminate, or identify and differentiate a drug and particularly, a drug which they know from prior experience, will produce a positive effect or rewarding effect, thus, a discriminative stimulus simply means a substance which acts as a stimulus, and that the animal can differentiate what that substance is. 

In humans, this occurs much more intentionally, and chronically, and under (often) self-made conditions. Meaning, a human discriminates that cocaine will produce a 'high', the cocaine is the stimulus that is being recognized, thus, it is discriminated, and thus, is a discriminative stimulus. 

Much the same pattern goes for rats and other lab animals, just that the reasons for doing so are based on the initiative of the overseeing entity (the human, or tester), therefore the rats aren't taking in a drug to get 'high', but because it motivates them or produces a shift in their mood. If the human, or tester wasn't there, the animal would never know it existed. 


TAGS/SEARCH TERMS : what does discriminative stimulus mean, reference to a drug, discriminative stimulus definition, definition of discriminative stimulus, discriminative stimulus means, pharmacology discriminative stimulus, 

How to Treat Dopamine Agonist Withdrawal Syndrome (D.A.W.S Treatment Natural/Pharma) (Treat DAWS Naturally with Supplements)

Dopamine Agonist Withdrawal syndrome (D.A.W.S) is a severe `withdrawal` which occurs after discontinuing or suddenly stopping the dose of a dopamine-agonist medication or dopaminergic medication [1]. These medications are used to treat Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) primarily, but are also used less commonly for Depression and other mood disorders [2] [3] [4]. The disorder or withdrawal is characterized by Anxiety, Nausea/Vomiting, Dysphoria/Anhedonia (Lack of pleasure from activities, colorless world, apathy), Depression/Suicidal Ideation, Anger/Agitation & Low Blood Pressure especially low blood pressure or hypotension upon standing or moving position (orthostatic hypotension) [5] [6] [7]

The PubMed databases don't give any specific rationale (at least directly) as to why this disorder occurs, and more to the point, why some only experience menial/transient symptoms whereas others are struck with severe behavioral and physical symptoms of the withdrawal. Mind & Muscle forum had a topic that gave a pretty nice overview of the disorder and it's likely etiology/physiological roots [8]

In short summary, the disorder is likely the result (given it happens after long-term therapy as opposed to a short-term treatment with the medication) of dopamine-receptor downregulation, similar to what happens in chronic amphetamine abusers [9] [10]. To treat the condition, we should focus on alleviating the short-term symptoms like nausea, and then to focus on supporting mood and reducing panic/anxiety as well as anhedonia by restoring post-synaptic dopamine receptor concentrations [11] [12].

I propose discussing such strategies with your Physician/s and if necessary, receive counseling and / or CBT for younger individuals or in whom may benefit or have had other stress issues that may precipitate or amplify the condition of dopamine-agonist withdrawal. My stack and as well, others I've spoken to have received a lot of help from this following supplement stack, is as follows.

  1. Ginger Extract (a potent one) AND / or a `Setron` anti-nausea drug to combat nausea. I recommend this Ginger product (capsules).
  2. Rutavala Essential Oil aromatherapy stick/roller, to be applied to face or near nostrils or on body which helps relieve anxiety associated with the withdrawal.
  3. Caffeine + N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT) by Ceretropic.
-Ginger is an effective anti-nausea supplement [See Here].
-Rutavala has aromatherapy agents that are light, but effective [See Here].
-Caffeine increases/restores dopamine receptors in human brain [See Here].

The ginger or setron drug is for nausea, the rutavala for anxiety and the Caffeine + NALT to help restore daily drive and dopamine levels.

One may also find great benefit in the dopamine receptor restoration stack.

These six supplements mentioned above should be more than enough to promote a fairly fast recovery from D.A.W.S or dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome.

Other strategies that may be employed if one does not entertain the idea of natural sups or for some reason they fall short (may happen for a small percentage but this stack really works!) are the following.

  • A short or long-run with the medication Amisupride (12.5 mg or 25 mg) which is technically an anti-psychotic drug but as lower than normal doses or low doses in general tend to restore dopamine receptors and dopamine firing activity producing a fast-acting anti-depressant/anti-anhedonic effect. Not recommended for long-term use and in those with low blood pressure due to other causes. Do not use amisulpride with any medication that prolongs the QT interval. |See Study Here|
  • Mianserin : A tough drug but anti-depressant that rapidly eliminates all anhedonia symptoms, the problem isn't that it's a bad drug, but that you have to keep taking it to see the effects and some will certainly want to stay on it rather than go off of it. 

Cheers, and do let me know in the comments below how it worked for ya'll!

Saturday, September 24, 2016

Egomania VS Attention-Seeking Behavior : Is there a Difference?

While egomania is a persisting personality trait, attention-seeking is rather a behavioral quality. A behavioral quality is expressed by an underlying emotional need, but is consistent after examining the individuals psyche. The behavioral quality is one adaptation, the person is 'used-to' expressing. It requires less thought. 

Personality Traits on the other hand are more perceptive, integrated, less based on ones emotional conflict and more based on what makes up the persons past to shape their beliefs. In the case of egomania, the individual embodies narcissism as a pathological reaction or a perceived need to preserve current established position or social status. Egomania is in a lot of ways, then to save face, and is often a calculated move that either.

1.) Acts to emulate Confidence.
2.) To heighten one's own assurance for any given situation and to assume the mantra of what they wish to be perceived as.

For these reasons it is often an element in the workplace, and arrogance often creates an illusion in a competitors mind before it creates a delusion in the wearers mind - thus the risk to benefit ratio is highly in favor of the person embodying said persona and the risks of them damaging their own mental stability far less if it is workplace-specific. However, ego 'enlargement' may be a more suitable term than egomania for these purposes. 

Egomania encompasses such a large degree of narcissism that the person is likely to carry the trait OUTSIDE of the work-place as well. It can be an addicting lifestyle, and no matter the actual details of the persons life, can elevate them to a place much higher than the place they would actually be at despite any perceived progress towards such position - meaning, it's a psychological high.

Attention-seeking is done often before there becomes a need for any compensatory psychological adaptation and / or narcissism, it is done though, as an in-the-moment ploy to see the reactions and hear the voices of others. Social isolation is a common precursor to attention-seeking behavior. If one feels their life is void of social contact then their need for attention becomes accelerated, even desperate in some cases. Thus attention-seeking behavior is a reoccurring trait in and before, the diagnosis of Borderline-Personality-Disorders as well as narcissistic-personality-disorder. 

These definitions seem to confine these two traits as wholly separate, but in reality they can both go together. I just wouldn't judge them as being the same type of diagnosis and egomania is a much more persistent quality whereas attention-seeking is a momentary action driven by emotional conflict or excitability. Thus, egomania being not an act but a part of the persons personality likely persisting throughout their entire adult life, and attention-seeking being one quality of that disorder or perhaps, not being relevant to it at all but being an action that occurs when it is deemed necessary by the person.

  • A person who exhibits attention-seeking behavior does not necessarily exhibit narcissistic tendencies nor does he/she have to fit into the profile of an egomanic/megalomaniac. 
  • A person who exhibits egomania or utter narcissism does not necessarily seek attention or exhibit specifically, attention-seeking behavior, but may certainly do so when provoked or when the individual deems it necessary, but may cover it up by acting as if the given attention was necessary i.e manipulative lifestyle remarked by purposeful distraction in order to cover emotional deficits aka a ''facade'' in social situations.
  • Those individuals who exhibit one trait related to egomania and one trait related to attention-seeking behavior do not necessarily equate to a full-disorder on either end. It is absolutely possible to not be an egomaniac and have some characteristics of one, or to not be an 'attention-whore' but to be one on occasion.
The idea that narcissism is based on emotional abuse is drawn into question based on the nature of narcissistic qualities which often develop before the age of 9 but are displayed differently. Eccentricity, odd abuse acts as a child (e.g spitting at people in restaurant knowing it will provoke a negative reaction from parents or others) and oppositional tendencies also can indicate childhood onset of antisocial-personality-disorder and thus predict the level of empathy if paired with adult-actions which also fit into such pattern.

Therefore there is a great deal of knowledge still which must be compared in order to determine which acts, traits, or psychological changes are actually relevant to a disorder and whether we can easily isolate such cases from those who structurally have life under control, and are merely using said means as tactic for work or presentation purposes (i.e acting or being in movies).
It is relevant then, to point out that those who embody such traits in television or in movies, often have some of these qualities subtly present within themselves, otherwise, how could they play the part so well? Therefore, even in the case where one assumes simulation, and training for the role, the person still must 'feel' the role which means they must emulate the situation and the PERSONALITY for said role. Therefore it is absolutely true that those evil-villains we see in movies often have a dark-side to themselves, but one that is very minor in comparison, and does not affect their personal lives as they are able to distinguish it, separate it from their 'real' lives and utilize it only when necessary.

Work-place narcissists use both egomania as a tool far more often and have actually incorporated it into their persona. Full-time narcissists (egomaniacs) are challenged by the fact that they bring this arrogance with them pretty much, wherever they go. Though they may appear calm and presentable, their arrogance will likely show when conflict arises or when they encounter a perceived violation either 1.) against their methods 2.) against their work or accomplishments 3.) against their status.
Therefore in this article we highlight the differences in situation which describes both of the aformentioned behavioral traits. 

Once again, egomania is a persistent personality trait, NOT a behavioral quality by definition but one incorporated into the persona of the person, attention-seeking behavior is just that, behavior, current, a behavioral quality which is reflected by the environment or social outlets of the person including friends and family, egomania shows no such discrepancy and does not discriminate to whom it is shown to if done simply for momentary value. In other words, even if egomania is selective and only shown to a few, it is likely not done for momentary reaction as then this would be considered simulation and not a persistent personality trait, rather, egomania is something the person is used to putting on, whereas attention-seeking is an act one is used to performing. Egomania is perceived to achieve long-term results in the person who exhibits it, but attention-seeking behavior is short-term, a momentary result. 

These perceived benefits which have a tendency to be exaggerated, are not easily deterred, but both traits can be definitely incorporated into a delusional belief system - which makes them even more stubborn and absolutely resistant to talking, counseling, therapies etc. 

Because they are personality traits and behavioral qualities, they are not likely relinquished by the logic of others, but instead, must require the participation of of the affected individual exhibiting said characteristics, their logic is what is important to deduce whether these traits are really benefiting them in their life.

Therefore a self-evaluation is necessary to achieve any, even minimal reversal or reduction in said traits, and that self-evaluation must also include looking at how it may (or even may not) impede their own progress. Progress meaning, at work, or in emotional stability as well. All very important for maintaining quality of life - thus the importance in self-evaluation for these characteristics as well.

Finally, as we have here elucidated the difference between these two traits, its worthwhile to note that these notes are not intended to replace the advice of a Physician, they are merely insights and examination of behavior based on here, the writers own practices or work experiences with others, specifically when working in a medical community, the writer here (J.De'Russo) has formed a bond with this information and understands it can be misinterpreted. I've worked in various institutions thus I can say with certainty and based on my own reading, this information contained here within, is indeed accurate and based on principle. It should be interpreted in-context and for learning purposes only.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Kava Kava Mechanism of Action/s : How Does Kava Affect Receptors & Neurotransmitters?

Kava is a natural anti-anxiety medication used mostly as a powder or smoked as a resin, it tends to produce fast-acting alleviation from panic and in many cases, social phobia [1] [2] [3]. Kava Kava extract has been discussed @longecity, the popular anti-aging / life extension community, for it's ability to 'upregulate' GABA receptors; which means to increase the number of GABA receptors in the brain/body. 

Kava seems to have many mechanisms of action besides GABA upregulation, including, but perhaps not limited to...

  1. Sodium (Na+) channel blockade [4].
  2. Calcium Channel (Ca2+) blockade/inhibition [5].
  3. Dopaminergic activities, by blocking removal/degradation of dopamine and by inhibition of MAO-B (monoamine oxidase-B) [6].
  4. Displacing/antagonizing serotonin activity, therefore stopping serotonin's actions at certain sites in the Brain [7].
  5. Activating the CB1-receptor (Cannibinoid-1) similarly to THC/Cannabis [8].
Affecting alpha-wave and gamma-wave activity similarly to how L-Theanine increases slow-wave activity and calms the nerves [9] [10]. 

Lastly, Kava Kava extract seems to alter the transport direction of norepinephrine, normally reversing it or inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine would cause an anxiogenic-effect, or anxiety provoking effect, but in some cases, increased/enhanced norepinephrine in specific areas of the brain may actually alleviate racing thoughts by shifting environmental focus [10].

I recommend buying Top Extract's Organic Kava Kava Extract, best bang for your buck and he's a real good guy who really puts his passion and honesty into helping people! It's not a large commercial, over-sized greed-wrenched business like some of the supplement companies out there. 

Sunday, September 11, 2016

Herbs/Supplements to Increase 5-HT2A Receptors (How to Increase 5-HT2A Receptors Naturally)

Now, I may not agree with every separate reasoning why one would want to 'increase 5-HT2A receptors' nor am I a pro-serotonin guy, but there is that undeniable fact that increasing 5-HT(2)A receptors (AKA Serotonin S2 Receptors) will render one more sensitive to the dissociative and psychedelic-effects of various psychoactive drugs [1] [2] [3]. Let's be more clear though, increasing serotonin type 2A receptors is able to confer the following benefits.

  • Rendering one sensitive to mushrooms, salvia, molly and what have you, the effects of all hallucinogenic drugs become more apparent, and one loses their tolerance to them [4] [5].
  • It's possible that increasing this receptor subtype may stimulate the mesolimbic system in the brain and thus increase creativity and maybe even 'magical thinking' [6] [7].
  • Increasing this receptor would increase cortisol secretion [8] [9], so it's possible that some would find benefit from doing so if you they suffer from hypoadrenalism or Addison's disease.

As far as other reasoning, some may increase the receptor just merely to experience the effects, or increasing it may cause behavioral changes which may mimic, or reproduce a long-lost mania. 

Therefore there are some *benefits* if you will, but that doesn't mean this strategy is for everyone. I would not recommend utilizing the practices in this guide if you suffer from any of the following.

  1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
  2. Schizophrenia.
  3. Mania.
  4. Stress-Issues.
  5. Borderline Personality Disorder.
All of those above issues are outlined by too much serotonin 5-HT2A activity so increasing it further would be foolish if one has those disorders or a predisposition to such.

Now onto the supplements.
(Increasing 5-HT2A/S2 Receptors Naturally with Supplements)
View the exclamation marked box to go to the source or citation in question.

1.) Inositol [!]. Inositol is probably the cheapest way to increase serotonin 2A receptors though it depends on what form you buy. I recommend this one.

2.) St.John's Wort Extract [!]. A powerful herb and anti-depressant which is well-known for sensitizing oneself for the experiences of the mystical and psychedelic chemicals. <Buy it Here>

3.) Ashwagandha [!]. Another anti-depressant and anti-anxiety herb that increases serotonin 2A receptors. It is one of the most notorious anti-anxiety herbs on the planet and almost everyone has success with it. {I recommend Barlowe's brand.}

NOTE: Using all of these at once, each daily, may increase the effects of each other and increase receptors that many times as much as one alone, but may also produce side-effects and interact too much with your other regimen.

St.John's Wort can not be take with psychedelic drugs, it must be taken for at least 3 weeks BEFORE ingesting or smoking any psychedelics.


Sunday, August 28, 2016

I Recovered from a Six-Month HARD Shut Down with These Natural Supplements (Two Supplements Increased My Testosterone by 700 ng/dl)

Alotta folks see my posts, as "Damage'', I am frequently seen as one of the funnest writers, not only on this blog but on forums as well. As damage, I am seen as one of the 'tough guys' of Area-1255, but no one really knows my story. 

My name is Eric W, of course, I won't speak my last name but it is of importance that people familiarize with me. This is me before Steroids. 

Now, ideally one should recover quickly after a sufficient PCT Cycle. That means their testicles should start working shortly after their post-cycle-therapy which is directly after their last steroid dose during a full-on cycle. Their natural testosterone levels should resume. Mine didn't. After a long hard cycle of TREN & DECA + Superdrol, I gained over 25 lbs of pure muscle and cut 18lbs of water weight/fat weight. I did a total recomp. I made serious progress.

BUT, my testosterone production had ceased and LH/FSH remained way below what they should have been. That's AFTER a strong 10,000 IU ''loading phase'' of hCG as well as a full 6-month cycle of Clomid as well as several 'test-boosting' herbs. No matter what, my test levels would just not 'boost'. Until I found RS Transaderm & PhytoSERMs 347X.

Now this is going to sound mad corny, but those two supplements did more than any other standalone herb or pharmaceutical concoction ever did for me. And I wanted to know WHY. 

WHY did the standard protocol that works for EVERYONE FAIL for me!??

After doing a bit of research, I think I've found the answer.

Some herbs just simply aren't ''pure'' enough to cut it. The pharmaceutical compounds were pure, and they were even tested by multiple labs, but the herbs...who knows. It's difficult to make an assessment when you have to trust the stuff that someone else is handing you, that goes with anything. 

BUT, the reason why they failed is quite certainly beyond that - it's a matter of individuality. My own personal susceptibility to this particular dilemma, but one that also relates back to the HARDCORE nature of the compounds I was using. 

Indeed, others have also been through this, and have been shut down with a similar mixture of compounds.

Whether their solutions are the same, well IDK.

What I do know, is after months of scary, FRIGHTENING primary hypogonadism ( <136 ng/dl ) I miraculously recovered with ONLY those two supplements together for 3 months. Only PhytoSERMs 347X & RS Transaderm FULLY RECOVERED my natural and Total Testosterone (TT) back to 837 ng/dl. That means that TWO natural supplements increased my testosterone by over 700 points!!!

I don't care if this sounds phony, it's my report, my testimonial, my reality. 

It's the truth. 

So those who are looking for a natural recovery protocol (PCT) should ABSOLUTELY give these two anti-aging supplements a try. They are expensive, but worth it. 

Check out RS Transaderm Here -->

NutraBio PRE Review (NutraBio Pre-Workout Powder Review) (Review of NutraBio Supplements by Area-1255)

Alright, so I've finally gotten around to reviewing this product, I've gotten tired of 'mainstream' preworkout products and decided to try a company who doesn't throw themselves in the spotlight as much. NutraBio comes across as a professional, stringent and humble company. Their representatives are also very professional and also aware individuals, in that they called me to make sure that a change of address was correctly requested by me on the second order and to make sure the order details were correct. 

I like that about them, this type of security shows how up-to-date their representatives are but also how proactive they are in general. 

Now let's get to the product. Here are pictures of it.

Take Note : This stuff is VERY strong, you only need one scoop per day - normally I don't take labels super seriously, but they are right, exceeding one scoop per day is not recommended, and not necessary.

TASTE (Green Apple Flavor)

  • SOUR SOUR SOUR! But very tasty. The stuff is easy to drink, I just put it in a bottle of water and its game-on! I don't recommend it in milk but you can certainly put it in Juice. It isn't something you will get tired of easily. There's no chemical taste to it though, and it doesn't taste watered down either.


Intense focus that kicks in after about 15-20 minutes of taking it. Sometimes a little longer, but that's usually the amount of time it takes for the energy, pump and motivation to kick in. 


This product ranks very high on the motivational scale, it simply activates your motivation unlike anything else I've tried. I'm talking nootropics, most stimulants, B-Vitamins etc. It's very strong in that regard. When you drink it, you feel the need to blast right over to the gym, or to wherever you go to workout! Heck, this stuff makes it fun just working out in my backyard (I have bench press back there). You are STRONG on this stuff, in part because of the 'buzz' and the energy it gives you. In that, I'd say the motivation comes from a prominent mood-lifting effect from this product!


This stuff isn't like some products, where you notice a 'peak' on day 3, or effects that only last for 20-25 minutes. This stuff gives you a steady, long energy burst and buzz that lasts for at least 4 hours, but usually up to around 8 hours, which is why I recommend you don't take it before 6 PM or near bedtime. The stuff will hit you HARD and will last longer than most pre-workouts.
Moreover, the energy it provides is not only a mood-lift but a 'have-to-do-something' type energy, it just emanates. The energy is not content to reside within in you it has to be exerted upon something, and its also perfect for sparring sessions and wrestling.

Its reliable energy burst is good for anything, using half-a-scoop can be used for studying. 

That makes this a VERY diverse product.


Holy shit! This stuff is strong like thunder, it creates not just a buzz but it dramatically increases muscle strength on the bench and off of it. It absolutely is NOT placebo and the strength is, quite frankly, for a preworkout...UNREAL! You will absolutely notice pumps that lead to strength, or strength that leads to pumps. It is not just the pump or solely the pump that enhances your strength, I feel it does something through the nervous system.

Keep in mind I was not taking ANY other supplements while using this, aside from a multi-vitamin. That's what makes this product so special, you know its IT that is working. 


Perhaps the most significant effect of all of it. The pumps on this product are equally INSANE. In all honesty I think NutraBio is using purer products than most, and their chemists are good at understanding what other products lack, because the ingredient profile isn't super different (but definitely unique) than some other preworkouts. It's different, but I mean they didn't change every-single-concept of a PreWorkout just so it would look different, so naturally of course, some ingredients will be also present in other preworkouts (like Creatine), because they've been proven.

Here's the ingredient label, took a snap-shot of it below that one.

I bought this product from their home page @